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worm species lost 7,000 genes after evolving to fertilize itself




umd-led study finds that worms that fertilize themselves lost one-fourth of their genome, including genes that make sperm competitive.



evolution of fan worm eyes




a fan worm projecting its fan-like array of feeding tentacles up out of its tube into the water column. two enlarged tentacles are tipped with a pair of prominent compound eyes. credit: dr michael bok, university of bristolscientists examining the multiple eyes found on the tentacles of fan worms ha...



worm atlas profiles gene readouts in every cell type in the animal




the roundworm stars in the first-ever compilation of gene readouts in every kind of cell in an animal. the readouts, which were taken at a particular stage in the worm's life, reveal, for example, which genes are turned on or off in each cell.



researchers identify genes that distinguish mammals from other animals




what distinguishes mammals from other vertebrates? researchers from the hospital del mar medical research institute (imim) have been trying to answer this question in collaboration with the researchers from the universitat pompeu fabra (upf). to do this, they analysed the sequenced genomes of 68 mam...



when butterfly male sex-bias flaps its wings




credit: cc0 public domainin butterflies, sex is determined by chromosome differences between males and females. but unlike in humans with the familiar x and y, in butterflies, it is the females that determine the sex of offspring. they do so by either passing along either their z (male) or w (female...



when butterfly male sex-bias flaps its wings




credit: cc0 public domainin butterflies, sex is determined by chromosome differences between males and females. but unlike in humans with the familiar x and y, in butterflies, it is the females that determine the sex of offspring. they do so by either passing along either their z (male) or w (female...



redefining 'species' | eurekalert! science news




image: hybrids between blue-winged and golden-winged warblers -- sometimes called "brewster's " warblers -- pose a challenge for ornithologists trying to agree on how to define species. view more credit: lloyd spitalnikwhat is a species? biologists--and ornithologists in particular--have been debat...



new species concept based on mitochondrial & nuclear dna coadaptation




hybrids between blue-winged and golden-winged warblers -- sometimes called "brewster's" warblers -- pose a challenge for ornithologists trying to agree on how to define species. credit: lloyd spitalnikwhat is a species? biologists—and ornithologists in particular—have been debating the best defi...



ancient human 'ghost' species revealed by saliva protein




a simple salivary protein has revealed a so-called ‘ghost’ species of ancient humans, a new study reveals, hinting at the existence of an archaic species that swapped genetic material with human ancestors. it is well known that ancient hominin species contributed to the rise of modern humans, no...



introducing 'dark dna'—the phenomenon that could change how we think about evolu




credit: shutterstockdna sequencing technology is helping scientists unravel questions that humans have been asking about animals for centuries. by mapping out animal genomes, we now have a better idea of how the giraffe got its huge neck and why snakes are so long. genome sequencing allows us to com...



rival sperm and choosy eggs




image: during his research, levitan induced male sea urchins to spawn using a potassium chloride solution. he then collected tiny parcels of sea water in syringes stocked with unfertilized eggs. view more credit: keeha levitanthe delicately mannered dance between discerning eggs and vying sperm is...



new way to prevent genetically engineered and unaltered organisms from producing




a major obstacle to applying genetic engineering to benefit humans and the environment is the risk that organisms whose genes have been altered might produce offspring with their natural counterparts, releasing the novel genes into the wild. now, researchers from the university of minnesota's biotec...



new way to prevent genetically engineered and unaltered organisms from producing




a major obstacle to applying genetic engineering to benefit humans and the environment is the risk that organisms whose genes have been altered might produce offspring with their natural counterparts, releasing the novel genes into the wild. now, researchers from the university of minnesota's biotec...



new toolkit reveals novel cancer genes




a new statistical model has enabled researchers to pinpoint 27 novel genes thought to prevent cancer from forming, in an analysis of over 2000 tumours across 12 human cancer types. the findings could help create new cancer treatments that target these genes, and open up other avenues of cancer resea...



metagenomic analysis software reveals new causes of superbug emergence




researchers from itmo university and center of physical and chemical medicine developed an algorithm capable of tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in gut microbiota dna and revealed additional evidence of resistance genes transfer between different bacterial species. the method can n...



the origin of flower making genes




image: a moss physcomitrella patens in which six mads-box genes are disrupted (right) forms a more elongated shoot than the normal moss does (left). this results in the prohibition of water... view more credit: koshimizu & hasebeflowering plants have evolved from plants without flowers. it is know...



study sheds new light on how species extinction affects complex ecosystems




research by the university of southampton has found that methods used to predict the effect of species extinction on ecosystems could be producing inaccurate results. this is because current thinking assumes that when a species vanishes, its role within an environment is lost too.



birds without own brood help other birds with parenting, but not selflessly




image: this is a feeding bird. view more credit: photo sjouke anne kingmabirds will sometimes care for the offspring of other birds of their own species if they anticipate future benefits. being tolerated in another bird's territory and the chance to inherit that territory later are considered rew...



worm moms pump eggs full of toxin, demand they inherit an antidote




enlarge/c. elegans, with the pharynx in the end that’s on the left.university of wisconsinshare this storyremember that part in casino royale when bond sips his martini, realizes he has been poisoned, then rushes out to his aston martin to inject himself with the antidote that q thoughtfully stash...



how do genes get new jobs? wasp venom offers new insights




amid the incredible diversity of living things on our planet, there is a common theme. organisms need to acquire new genes, or change the functions of existing genes, in order to adapt and survive.how does that happen?a common view is that genes duplicate, with one of the copies picking up a new fun...



worm moms pump eggs full of toxin, demand they inherit an antidote




enlarge/ a male c. elegans, with the pharynx in the end that’s on the left.university of wisconsinshare this storyremember that part in casino royale when bond sips his martini, realizes he has been poisoned, then rushes out to his aston martin to inject himself with the antidote that q thoughtful...



flower or flesh? genetics explain mosquito preference




columbus, ohio - imagine a world in which mosquitoes choose blossoms over blood. nice, right? there already exists a mosquito species called wyeomyia smithii in which most of the bugs refuse blood meals in favor of sweet floral nectar. and new research is helping to explain the evolutionary genetics...



how a quarter of cow dna came from reptiles




by hopping between species, jumping genes have radically altered the course of animal evolution.



flower or flesh? genetics explain mosquito preference




anopheles gambiae mosquito, feeding on blood. credit: james gathany, centers for disease control and preventionimagine a world in which mosquitoes choose blossoms over blood. nice, right?there already exists a mosquito species called wyeomyia smithii in which most of the bugs refuse blood meals in f...



new genes on "deteriorating" y chromosome




the y-chromosome of fruit flies consists not just of "gene-junk", but also functioning genes. credit: markus riedlthe y chromosome, which is found only in males, is difficult to decode even with the latest sequencing technologies. among evolutionary biologists, the question as to which genes lie on ...