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if pigeons were brilliant, would they flock?

crowd panics, market bubbles, and other unpredictable collective behaviors would not happen if people were smart about these things and just thought through their behavior before they acted. right? that's the perspective in economics, and even psychology and sociology.but a uc davis researcher looked at how people behave in simple reasoning games and found that people are usually driven to "flock," or behave similarly to others in a given situation. seth frey, an assistant professor of communication at uc davis, said this happens "even when people use the fancy reasoning processes that are supposed to make humans so special."frey is lead author of an article, "cognitive mechanisms for human flocking dynamics." the paper appeared in th...




ms researchers find well-being differs with age in multiple sclerosis

image: dr. strober is a senior research scientist at kessler foundation. view more credit: kessler foundationeast hanover, nj. september 19, 2018. a recent brief report by ms researchers provides preliminary evidence that older individuals with multiple sclerosis (ms) report lower levels of depression and higher quality of life than their younger counterparts. these findings are consistent with the trend toward improvement in well-being with age in the general population. the article, "subjective well-being differs with age in multiple sclerosis: a brief reports", was published in rehabilitation psychology vol 63(3), aug 2018, 474-478. (doi:10.1037/rep0000220) the authors are brocha z. stern (nyu), phd, lauren strober, phd, and john de...




is the end of the recombinant dna advisory committee (rac) a good thing?

image: human gene therapy presents reports on the transfer and expression of genes in mammals, including humans. view more credit: mary ann liebert, inc., publishersnew rochelle, ny, september 19, 2018-- recently, the u.s. national institutes of health (nih) and food and drug administration (fda) called for the eliminating involvement of the recombinant dna advisory committee (rac) in human gene therapy experiments, marking the end of an era of federal government oversight. while the rac played an essential role in helping human gene therapy research evolve to where it is today, james m. wilson, md, phd, editor, human gene therapy clinical development, believes this is the right moment for it to exit the stage, as he explains in his ed...




outside competition breeds more trust among coworkers: study

working in a competitive industry fosters a greater level of trust amongst workers, finds a new study from the university of british columbia, princeton university and aix-marseille university, published today in science advances.this phenomenon was identified using data from the both the u.s. and germany across multiple manufacturing industries. the authors suggest that more intense competition in an industry leads to more pro-social behavior, like sharing, co-operation, and volunteering, at a company. "in competitive markets, employers unable to elicit such cooperative behavior are likely to be out-competed by those that are more successful in doing so," said patrick francois, co-author and professor of the vancouver school of economics ...




unprecedented ice loss in russian ice cap

in the last few years, the vavilov ice cap in the russian high arctic has dramatically accelerated, sliding as much as 82 feet a day in 2015, according to a new multi-national, multi-institute study led by cires fellow mike willis, an assistant professor of geology at cu boulder. that dwarfs the ice's previous average speed of about 2 inches per day and has challenged scientists' assumptions about the stability of the cold ice caps dotting earth's high latitudes. "in a warming climate, glacier acceleration is becoming more and more common, but the rate of ice loss at vavilov is extreme and unexpected," said mike willis, cires fellow and lead author of the paper published this week in earth and planetary science letters. glaciers and ice c...




ms researchers find well-being differs with age in multiple sclerosis

image: dr. strober is a senior research scientist at kessler foundation. view more credit: kessler foundationeast hanover, nj. september 19, 2018. a recent brief report by ms researchers provides preliminary evidence that older individuals with multiple sclerosis (ms) report lower levels of depression and higher quality of life than their younger counterparts. these findings are consistent with the trend toward improvement in well-being with age in the general population. the article, "subjective well-being differs with age in multiple sclerosis: a brief reports", was published in rehabilitation psychology vol 63(3), aug 2018, 474-478. (doi:10.1037/rep0000220) the authors are brocha z. stern (nyu), phd, lauren strober, phd, and john de...




flu season forecasts could be more accurate with access to health care companies' data

image: new research shows that data routinely collected by health care companies could enable more accurate forecasts of when the next flu season will peak, how long it will last and... view more credit: university of texas at austinin an era when for-profit companies collect a wealth of data about us, new research from the university of texas at austin shows that data collected by health care companies could -- if made available to researchers and public health agencies -- enable more accurate forecasts of when the next flu season will peak, how long it will last and how many people will get sick. in the u.s., seasonal influenza causes thousands of deaths and hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. forecasting can improve p...




super cheap earth element to advance new battery tech to the industry

image: purdue researcher jialiang tang helped resolve charging issues in sodium-ion batteries that have prevented the technology from advancing to industry testing and use. view more credit: purdue university marketing and media photowest lafayette, ind. -- most of today's batteries are made up of rare lithium mined from the mountains of south america. if the world depletes this source, then battery production could stagnate.sodium is a very cheap and earth-abundant alternative to using lithium-ion batteries that is also known to turn purple and combust if exposed to water - even just water in the air.worldwide efforts to make sodium-ion batteries just as functional as lithium-ion batteries have long since controlled sodium's tende...




simulations of every woman's breast tissue address delay on enhanced mri cancer detection

image: there are far fewer computer models of the female body compared to the male body, making it difficult for researchers to predict that a new mri technique would be safe... view more credit: purdue university image/xin liwest lafayette, ind. -- no woman's breast tissue is the same, so mris detecting and monitoring cancer shouldn't treat them all the same.without a way to prove that a new mri technique is safe for all women, clinical mris haven't been able to keep pace with the latest advances in mri research. more informative cancer detection is possible with stronger magnetic fields that also, unfortunately, increase the risk of tissue heating during a screening.purdue university researchers have simulated how over 20 different b...




newborn opioid withdrawal requires a 'cascade of care,' study suggests

september 19, 2018 - effective management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (nas) - withdrawal symptoms occurring in infants exposed to opioids in utero - requires a coordinated "cascade of care" from prevention through long-term follow-up, reports a study in advances in neonatal care, official journal of the national association of neonatal nurses. the journal is published in the lippincott portfolio by wolters kluwer. based on interviews with frontline providers caring for infants affected by nas, the researchers identify four essential areas to improve care for this increasingly common complication of opioid use. "greater resources, coordination, and cross-disciplinary education are urgently needed across the cascade of care to effective...




viral rna sensing | eurekalert! science news

even tiny amounts of viruses can have disastrous consequences. rna identification can reveal the type of virus present. a fast and sensitive technique based on optical detection has now been outlined in the journal angewandte chemie. scientists from germany and finland have demonstrated the binding of an rna target to a probe made of gold nanorods and a dna origami structure. chirality switches triggered by binding can be measured by circular dichroism spectroscopy.identifying the pathogen--often a virus--that is troubling a patient is among the biggest challenges in healthcare. viruses responsible for zika fever, aids, and hepatitis c contain mutating rna sequences. physicians need to know quickly which type of virus their patients have acq...




researchers develop microbubble scrubber to destroy dangerous biofilms

image: professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering simon rogers, left, postdoctoral researchers jun pong park and yongbeom seo and professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering hyunjoon kong led an international team... view more credit: photo by l. brain staufferchampaign, ill. -- stiff microbial films often coat medical devices, household items and infrastructure such as the inside of water supply pipes, and can lead to dangerous infections. researchers have developed a system that harnesses the power of bubbles to propel tiny particles through the surfaces of these tough films and deliver an antiseptic deathblow to the microbes living inside.biofilms are slimy colonies of microbes held together by internal scaffolds, clin...




journal of the american medical association shines spotlight on geroscience

image: this is the american federation for aging research. view more credit: courtesy afarseptember 18, 2018 (new york, ny) - geroscience--the burgeoning research field that focuses on the genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms that make aging a major risk factor for most chronic diseases as we age--takes center stage in the journal of the american medical association (jama), the world's most widely circulated medical journal."the fact that jama, long one of the most highly influential and respected voices for the medical community, invited five afar experts to contribute articles on different aspects of geroscience vividly illustrates how this important and potentially transformative area of research continues to gain momentum,...




umn researchers discover influenza virus doesn't replicate equally in all cells

minneapolis, mn- september 19, 2018- the seasonal flu is caused by different subtypes of influenza a virus and typically leads to the death of half a million people each year. in order to better understand this virus and how it spreads, university of minnesota medical school researchers took a closer look at the cells inside the lungs. what they discovered is not only is the immune system response tuned to the amount of virus replication, it's also tuned to the viral spread. this deeper and more accurate understanding of the influenza virus and how it spreads could be the building blocks to better protective therapies for patients in the future."distinct antiviral signatures revealed by the magnitude and round of influenza virus replicatio...




ua study reveals arizona emts face 39-percent greater risk of suicide

arizona emergency medical technicians' risk for suicide is 39-percent higher than the general public, according to a new study conducted by university of arizona college of medicine - phoenix researchers. neil vigil, a second-year ua medical student, and bentley bobrow, md, associate director of the arizona emergency medicine research center - phoenix and professor in emergency medicine at the ua college of medicine - phoenix, recently completed the first peer-reviewed publication that specifically studied emts. "although we were bracing ourselves to find an increase in suicides among our emts, i was really shocked that it was that large," said vigil, who is also a tillman scholar. "these findings help move the discussion of emt suicide b...




if pigeons were brilliant, would they flock?

crowd panics, market bubbles, and other unpredictable collective behaviors would not happen if people were smart about these things and just thought through their behavior before they acted. right? that's the perspective in economics, and even psychology and sociology.but a uc davis researcher looked at how people behave in simple reasoning games and found that people are usually driven to "flock," or behave similarly to others in a given situation. seth frey, an assistant professor of communication at uc davis, said this happens "even when people use the fancy reasoning processes that are supposed to make humans so special."frey is lead author of an article, "cognitive mechanisms for human flocking dynamics." the paper appeared in th...




firmware at the blink of an eye: scientists develop new technology of alloy steel rolling

image: these are seamless pipes. view more credit: © nust misisa research team from the nust misis department of pressure metal treatment has developed a new technology which simplifies the process of hot rolling seamless pipes made of alloy and high-alloy steel. the consistent use of two simple male punches, tools that turn an unruly steel blank into a hollow "sleeve", is a distinctive feature of the technology. the research article on this development to accelerate the process and improve the wear resistance of tools has been published in the international journal of advanced manufacturing technology.due to its high strength, the seamless pipes made of alloy and high alloy steel are actively used in gas, oil, chemical, and energy i...




people can handle the truth (more than you think)

most people value the moral principle of honesty. at the same time, they frequently avoid being honest with people in their everyday lives. who hasn't told a fib or half-truth to get through an awkward social situation or to keep the peace?new research from the university of chicago booth school of business explores the consequences of honesty in everyday life and determines that people can often afford to be more honest than they think.in the paper, "you can handle the truth: mispredicting the consequences of honest communication," chicago booth assistant professor emma levine and carnegie mellon university's taya cohen find that people significantly overestimate the costs of honest conversations."we're often reluctant to have complet...




a little labeling goes a long way

evanston, ill. --- even before infants begin to speak, hearing language promotes object categorization. hearing the same label, "that's a dog!" applied to a diverse set of objects -- a collie, a terrier, a pug -- promotes infants' acquisition of object categories (e.g., the category "dog"). but in infants' daily lives, most objects go unlabeled. infants are constantly seeing new things, and even the most determined caregivers cannot label each one. how can we reconcile the power of labels with their relative scarcity? new research from northwestern university reveals that infants can use even a few labeled examples to spark the acquisition of object categories. those labeled examples lead infants to initiate the process of categorizatio...




women who breastfeed for at least five months have more kids

ithaca, n.y. - women who breastfeed their first child for five months or longer are more likely to have three or more children, and less likely to have only one child, than women who breastfeed for shorter durations or not at all.in "intensive parenting: fertility and breastfeeding duration in the united states," published in the journal demography, cornell university professor of sociology vida maralani, with hunter college professor samuel stabler, reports that women who initiate breastfeeding did not differ in how many children they expected to have before they started their families. rather, the number of children women actually bear differs by how long they breastfeed their first child. women who breastfeed for shorter durations are m...